Spark plug for automobiles
TORCH is the leader in automobile spark plugs, with spark plugs for almost every car, truck, SUV application in the world. Utilizing a wide variety of materials, from standard copper-core type to Iridium, TORCH is becoming one of the world's leaders in spark plug engineering and technology. TORCH Spark Plugs are OEM Approved and specified by many automobile manufacturers here in China and oversea market.
Spark plug for motorcycles
TORCH is the leader in motorcycle spark plugs, with spark plugs for virtually most motorcycle, ATV, and scooter application in the world. Utilizing a wide variety of materials, from standard copper-core type to Iridium, TORCH is becoming one of the world's leaders in spark plug engineering and technology. TORCH Spark Plugs are OEM Approved and specified by many motorcycle manufacturers here in China and oversea market.
Spark plug for small engines
TORCH also has great contribution to all kinds of small engine applications, such as lawn mowers, chainsaws, rock drills or ice drills, portable generators, log splitters, hedge trimmers, snow blowers, scarifiers, brushcutters and so on. These spark plugs are with utilizing a wide variety of materials from standared copper-core type to iridiuim, incorporated with resistor, which leads to environmental friendliness and reliable performance.
Spark plug for marines
Stainless Steel Marine spark plugs are the ultimate performance solution for marine engines. With a stainless steel shell, this unique spark plug is impervious to rust over the life of the plug. The copper core ground electrode dissipates heat faster resulting in less gap erosion. In addition, it provides smoother idle, better fuel economy, and helps prevent engine damaging preignition. The resistor inside plug eliminates RFI related false readings on depth/fish finders, GPS and other navigational instruments. This also eliminates static in audio and on-board communications systems achieved without loss of ignition performance.
Spark plug for industrial applications
These spark plugs are designed for wide range of industrial applications such as engines burning natural gas, biogas, landfill gas, sewage gas or mixed gas. These plugs need to undertake heavy load and are with long lasting life and good reliability. Most of these plugs are with electrodes enhanced by massive platinum and iridium materials. Some of them have special design like multiple electrodes, pre-chamber or extended mounting device.
Spark plug for aircrafts
This plug is designed with a high-purity aluminum insulator and a special alloy so that it can withstand high spark energy, high voltage, high temperature, and high-pressure gas. The plug is originally designed for military application.
Spark plug for rockets
The spark plug is installed in the combustion chamber near the supply port of hydrogen and oxygen, a silicon nitride insulator is embedded in the plug, which help to withstand strong impact from the combustion heat.
What is the function of a spark plug?
A It serves as a lighter to ignite the air/fuel mixture.
It operates under extreme conditions.
Why are TORCH spark plugs superior?
A They are designed to extract maximum performance from the engine throughout its range.
1.It is an "ultra wide heat range" spark plug. It has a center electrode with copper deeply inserted in the tip to quickly dissipate large amounts of heat. This makes for a spark plug with an "ultra wide heat range" that resists both overheating and fouling.
When the thermal characteristics of spark plugs with and without copper cores are compared, spark plugs with copper cores prove to be superior in heat and fouling resistance and provide a wider thermal operating range.
2.This spark plug incorporates an insulator made of state-of-the-art high-alumina ceramics.
• It has superior insulation at high temperatures and offers continuously sparking.
• It provides superior thermal conductivity and prevents overheating.
• It resists thermal shock and provides superior mechanical strength.
3.It has solid construction to ensure reliable gas-tightness.
Special hot crimping process to make sure superior gas-tightness and strong construction.
4.The electrode tip made of special nickel alloy ensures superior durability.
Special nickel alloy ensures superior heat resistance and durability.
What is the heat rating of a spark plug?
A spark plug must dissipate the heat produced by the combustion gases. The heat rating is a measure of the amount of heat dissipation.
It is essential to use a spark plug with a heat rating that matches a specific engine and its condition of use.
When a wrong heat rating is selected,
When the heat rating is too high,
The spark plug temperature remains too low and causes deposits to build up on the firing end; the deposits provide an electrical leakage path that possibly cause misfire.
When the heat rating is too low,
The spark plug temperature rises too high and induces abnormal combustion (pre-ignition); this leads to melting of the spark plug electrodes that could cause problems such as piston damage.
What do TORCH part numbers signify?
A The TORCH part numbers are the basis for selecting the spark plug specified by the manufacturer.
Why is the firing end appearance of a spark plug important?
A Because the firing end appearance reflects the suitability of the spark plug as well as the condition of the engine.
These are the three basic standards for evaluating a spark plug.
Spark plug tip temperature and firing end appearance
The border-line between the fouling and optimum operating regions (500 °C) is called the spark plug self-cleaning temperature.
It is at this temperature that accumulated carbon deposits are burnt off.
What is the function of the ribs on the insulator?
A They ensure insulation and prevent flash-ove
What is flash-over?
Flash-over is when there is a spark between the terminal and the metal shell, as shown in the picture.
Flash-over can be prevented by the following.
Ribs are provided on the insulator to extend the surface distance of the insulator between the terminal and the metal shell. This ensures the insulation needed for preventing flash-over.
The correct spark can be maintained by the spark gap.
High voltage is constantly applied between the terminal and metal shell.
This high voltage tries to leak along the surface of the insulator.
If the voltage required by the spark gap is high, flash-over can easily occur.
Flash-over resistance voltage
NOTE : Always ensure that SPARK PLUG COVERS/CAPS are clean. Old or dirty SPARK PLUG COVERS/CAPS increase chances of flash-over.
What is a resistor spark plug?
A It incorporates a ceramic resistor to suppress ignition noise generated during sparking.
It incorporates a ceramic resistor.
It suppresses ignition noises from sparks.
Resistor spark plugs prevent electrical interference that can disrupt car radio reception, two-way radio and cellular phone operation.
This type of spark plug also prevents electrical noise from interfering with the operation of the computer in the engine.
Noise suppression effects of a resistor spark plug
(Compared with one of our conventional types)
As shown above, noise is reduced in all frequency zones by installing resistor spark plugs. Example of part number of a resistor spark plug As the resistor spark plug has an incorporated resistor, some people think that it has adverse effects on start-up, acceleration, fuel economy and emissions. However, this is wrong. It does not affect engine performance so don't hesitate to use it.
What is a V-grooved type spark plug?
A It has a 90°V-groove in the tip of the center electrode to enhance ignitability.
It has a 90°V-groove in the tip of the center electrode.
The V-groove ensures that the spark is directed to either left or right edge of the electrodes.
The flame core is generated near the perimeter of the electrodes and grows.
Ignitability is improved because the electrodes are interfering less when the flame core growing.
What is the Iridium spark plug?
A Iridium has very high melting point at 2545 centigrade much higher than that of platinum at 1772. This allows the electrode to be thinner than the platinum type, improving ignitability. In addition, the thermo edge designed in the Iridium spark plug makes it highly resistant to carbon fouling.
The diameter of the center electrode is very fine.
The tip of ground electrode is taper cut.
It produces sparks very easily and has excellent ignitability.
Better performance is achieved with improved starting, acceleration, and idling stability, as well as fuel-efficiency.
Combustion pressure test The Iridium spark plug has less dispersion than a conventional spark plug, allowing it to maintain stable performance.
Increased power in the middle rpm range provides improved acceleration performance. Since the center electrode is very fine, the flame core grows larger.
Moreover, the tip of ground electrode is taper cut.
What kinds of spark plugs offer good resistance to carbon build-up?
A A spark plug designed for the spark to jump along the insulator surface of firing end, in order to burn off accumulated carbon deposits which may lead to fouling.
The intermittent discharge plug, the spark plug with a supplementary gap, and the semi surface gap type.
What is spark plug fouling?
A It is a phenomenon by which carbon accumulated at the firing end causes electrical leakage that leads to misfiring.
As the high voltage generated by the ignition coil leaks away through the carbon, misfiring may occur and cause running and starting difficulties.
As carbon builds up, the insulation resistance of the spark plug drops and the voltage generated by the ignition coil is reduced. When the generated voltage becomes lower than the required voltage of a spark plug (the voltage needed to cause sparks at the spark gap), sparking is suppressed and misfiring occurs.
What are the effects of spark plug overheating?
A Prolonged overheating may induce abnormal combustion such as pre-ignition and detonation resulting in melting of the spark plug electrodes and damage of engine.
When there is overheating, the insulator surface of the spark plug becomes pure white and the burning gases deposit spots. Electrode melting is a more advanced type of overheating and when spark plug temperatures reach 800 °C or more, the tip of the plug may glow red hot and become a source of ignition prior to sparking, causing abnormal combustion that can damage the engine.
What is good ignitability?
A "Ignition performance" refers to an engine's ability to successfully and effectively, burn a wide range of air/fuel mixtures. A good spark plug can improve "Ignition performance"
There are four stages from the time the spark is generated at the gap, to the combustion of the air/fuel mixture.
The quenching action is where the cooler center and ground electrodes drain the energy of the flame core by way of heat transfer. If quenching is severe, the flame core can be extinguished, causing ignition to fail. Therefore, spark plugs designed to reduce the quenching effect have better "Ignition performance".
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